Cardio surgery is a medical unit that deals with the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and the thoracic aorta. Cardiac surgeons are usually divided into two professional specialties. While there are many similarities and overlaps in their practice, some differences are great enough to group them separately. Cardiothoracic surgeons specialize in surgery on most of the organs and tissues found in the chest. This may include operations on the heart and related major blood vessels as well as the lungs. Whereas a pediatric heart surgeon focuses on repairing structural problems or abnormalities that a person has at birth. This can include heart valve problems, holes in the walls between the heart chambers, and more.